Printing Biblical Plagues: Additive Manufacturing and Network Centric Warfare

By Ryan Kuhns

In April, the Office of Naval Research tested an iteration of the Low-Cost UAV Swarming Technology (LOCUST) system. Launched out of a device that looks similar to a Multiple Rocket Launching System (MRLS), these little Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) were then able to act together to carry out their demonstrative mission. “Autonomous Swarming” is becoming a reality.

It would seem that the future of warfare has taken another great step, edging closer to the operational aspects of network centric warfare (NCW) that were conceptually distorted during the attempt to create the “Navy after Next” and effectively aborted after the post-recession budget cuts and sequester.

Ships like the DD(x), CG(x) and LCS combined what was then the contemporary vision of futuristic naval platforms with the information technology (IT) revolution that was coming to dominate war-fighting. The prohibitive costs of the platforms and development difficulties led to cancellations and project modifications (see the LCS) as well as attempts to integrate the concepts of the IT revolution into more familiar boats (such as the DDG 51), with an established industrial footprint and operational capacity, fostering the industrially sustaining nature of NCW.

The rapid development and feasibility of advanced 3-D printing technology may change this, providing the impetus for a disruption of the industrial status quo and pushing military planning past the conceptual and technological limitations of the 1990s and 2000s.  If size and number are to be the key components of the survivability of the networked system in NCW, then the reductions in cost and time (as seen here, with the latest Rutherford engine cutting rocket engine production from a few months to 3 days) associated with this emerging revolution in additive manufacturing technology will push NCW towards theoretical purity, as long as software and hardware progress are in relative lockstep.

Robotic 3-D Printer Source: Creative Tools / flickr

If the cost of platforms can be reduced, their effectiveness guaranteed and streamlined through single mission forms, and they can be linked via disruption resistant connections, then the speed with which the nodes in the network can be replaced will determine the effectiveness of the network as a weapon. This is really the point of NCW, to sync and weaponize the entire operational and strategic structure by providing instantaneous and unitary tactical ability. The nodes will simply be relegated to ammunition, and may even self-destruct as such.

While the application of this technology may be manifest in imagined futures, the utility of 3-D printing technology to the defense manufacturing industry, especially when applied to the US Navy, will lie within the ability of the Navy to see 3-D printing’s true potential in radically transforming the service’s platforms and aiding in the practical shift to the NCW doctrine developed almost 20 years ago. Experimentation with the technology’s ability to print parts is incredibly important and useful, buts as the frontier in materials for 3-D printing pushes outward, the Navy and the defense industry must start thinking big. It seems that they are, but time will tell how vested political interests, in conjunction with operational and strategic Luddites, will shape the Navy’s ability to fully articulate its vision of NCW.

In many ways, these advances in both autonomy and production could help structure an interesting counter to A2/AD. That may have to be the policy angle the Navy takes in pushing its R&D and Procurement budget in front of the right congressional and administration allies. It might also be a winning strategy for shepherding the defense industry in the direction that the Navy wants, promising long-term investments in countering specific strategic threats.

Originally posted on Dr. Robert Farley’s Defense Statecraft Blog


resize 3Ryan Kuhns is a master’s student at the University of Kentucky’s Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce. He studies International Security and Commerce with his main interests being in international relations, defense economics, strategy, and the social/political organization of war. He can be contacted at or followed on twitter @ryandfkuhns.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s